Tag Archives: diabetes

Galileo: Potential Non-pharmacological Therapy for Diabetes

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2014 Jul;8(4):889-94. doi: 10.1177/1932296814536289. Epub 2014 May 21

The Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Skin Blood Flow and Nitric Oxide Production

Paula K. Johnson, MS; J. Brent Feland, PT, PhD; A. Wayne Johnson, PT, PhD; Gary W. Mack, PhD; Ulrike H. Mitchell, PT, PhD

Department of Exercise Sciences Brigham Young University, Provo, UT


Background: Vascular dysfunction due to hyperglycemia in individuals with diabetes is a
factor contributing to distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP). Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
reduce the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a powerful vasodilator, resulting in reduced
circulation and nerve ischemia. Increases in blood NO concentrations and circulation have been
attributed to whole body vibration (WBV).

The purpose of this study was to the determine the effects of low frequency, low amplitude WBV on whole blood NO concentration and skin blood flow (SBF) in individuals with symptoms of DSP.

Research Design and Methods: Ten subjects with diabetes and impaired sensory
perception in the lower limbs participated in this cross-over study. Each submitted to two
treatment conditions, WBV and sham, with a one week washout period between. Blood draws
for NO analysis and Doppler laser image scans of SBF were performed before, immediately after and following a 5 minute recovery of each the treatments.

Mean Skin Blood Flow

Mean Skin Blood Flow

Results: Low frequency, low amplitude WBV vibration significantly increased skin blood
flow compared to the sham condition (F2,18=5.82, p=0.0115). Whole blood nitric oxide
concentrations did not differ between the WBV and sham condition immediately or 5 minutes
post-treatment (F2,18=1.88, p=0.1813)

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that subjects with diabetes respond to whole
body vibration with increased skin blood flow compared to sham condition. The implication is
that WBV is a potential non-pharmacological therapy for neurovascular complications of


Galileo Improves Diabetic Neuropathy

Tohoku J Exp Med, 2013; 231(4): 305-14, PMID: 24334483

Whole-body vibration training improves balance, muscle strength and glycosylated hemoglobin in elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy.

Lee K, Lee S, Song C
Department of Physical Therapy, Sahmyook University.


Elderly patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are more likely to experience falls. However, the information available on how such falls can be prevented is scarce. We investigated the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with a balance exercise program on balance, muscle strength, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in elderly patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

Fifty-five elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy were randomly assigned to WBV with balance exercise group, balance exercise (BE) group, and control group. The WBV and BE groups performed the balance exercise program for 60 min per day, 2 times per week, for 6 weeks. Further, the WBV group performed WBV training (up to 3 x 3 min, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks). The control group did not participate in any training.

The main outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of training; namely, we assessed:

  • Postural sway and one leg stance (OLS) for static balance
  • Berg balance scale (BBS)
  • Timed up-and-go (TUG) test
  • Functional reach test (FRT) for dynamic balance
  • Five-times-sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test for muscle strength
  • HbA1c for predicting the progression of diabetes.

Significant improvements were noted in the static balance, dynamic balance, muscle strength, and HbA1c in the WBV group, compared to the BE and control groups (P < 0.05).

Thus, in combination with the balance exercise program, the short-term WBV therapy is beneficial in improving balance, muscle strength and HbA1c, in elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy who are at high risk for suffering falls.

Balance Improves Type 2 Diabetes

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Jun 28. pii: S0003-9993(13)00467-X. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.05.030. [Epub ahead of print]

A Primary Care-Based Randomized Controlled Trial of 12-Week Whole-Body Vibration for Balance Improvement in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Del Pozo-Cruz J, Alfonso-Rosa RM, Ugia JL, McVeigh JG, Pozo-Cruz BD, Sañudo B.


Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.


OBJECTIVE:  To determine whether a 12-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training program improved balance in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

DESIGN:  Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:  Primary health care setting.

PARTICIPANTS:  Participants with T2DM (N=50).

INTERVENTIONS:  Participants were randomly allocated to either a WBV group (n=25), which performed a 12-week WBV-based exercise program on an oscillating platform (12-16Hz-4mm; 3 sessions/wk), or a usual-care control group (n=25).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:  Clinical and socio demographic variables were recorded at baseline. Static balance and dynamic balance were also assessed at baseline by measuring postural sway (measurement of center of pressure [COP] excursions in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions) using a Wii Balance Board and the Timed Up and Go test.

RESULTS:  Significant between-group differences in COP excursions with participants’ eyes closed were found with their feet apart and feet together. In addition, participants in the WBV group exhibited significantly lower COP excursions with their eyes closed after the intervention, while participants in the control group experienced a non significant deterioration in COP excursions (ie, greater excursion) with their eyes open (mediolateral axis). There was no significant difference in the Timed Up and Go test values post intervention.

CONCLUSIONS:  WBV provides a safe and well-tolerated approach to improve balance in participants with T2DM. These findings may have important implications for falls prevention in those with T2DM in the primary health care setting.

Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS:  COP, Diabetes mellitus, Preventive therapy, Rehabilitation, T2DM, TUG, Timed Up and Go, Vibration, WBB, WBV, Wii Balance Board, center of pressure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, whole-body vibration

PMID:  23811317