Category Archives: Sports & Fitness

Reduce Muscle Soreness and Enhance Muscle Recovery.

J Phys Ther Sci, 2016; 28(6): 1781-5, PMID: 27390415 external link

Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

Timon R, Tejero J, Brazo-Sayavera J, Crespo C, Olcina G
Department of Physical Education and Sport, Sport Sciences Faculty, University of Extremadura, Spain.

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery.

Subjects and Methods: Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed.

Results: Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 +/- 8.2 vs. 300.5 +/- 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 +/- 12.5 vs. 285.2 +/- 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 +/- 11.4 vs. 65.2 +/- 13.2 mm).

Conclusion: Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

ACL rehabilitation time cut 50% with Galileo

J Sports Sci Med, 2014; 13(3): 580-9, PMID: 25177185 external link

Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction:

A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up.

Berschin G, Sommer B, Behrens A, Sommer HM
Department of Sports Science and Motology, Philipps-University Marburg , Marburg, Germany.

Abstract

The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2(nd) week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test.

In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol.

Key points In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction.

Patient standing on the WBV platform in week 11 after surgery performing exercise in the preconditioned body posture with additional load.

Patient standing on the WBV platform in week 11 after surgery performing exercise in the preconditioned body posture with additional load.

Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both protocols showed no differences regarding clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. Despite a more than 50% reduction in time spent for exercise sessions, the WBV group achieved significant better results in the stability test.

In conclusion, the presented WBV program can be considered as a practical alternative to a standard exercise program during ACL-rehabilitation.

Doc-ID: 3623

High Intensity Training with Galileo Vibration

PLoS One. 2015 Feb 13;10(2):e0116764. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116764. eCollection 2015.

High intensity interval training with vibration as rest intervals attenuates fiber athrophy and prevents decreases in anaerobic performance. 

Mueller SM1, Aguayo D1, Zuercher M1, Fleischmann O1, Boutellier U1, Auer M2, Jung HH2, Toigo M1.

Abstract

Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W’) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4 x 4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function.

Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4 x 4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W’, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W’ (-14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (-8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (-10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (-6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (-6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations.

Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146.

Sports & Fitness

Not only is Galileo a clinically proven method to improve speed and power development, but it has also been shown to enhance flexibility and circulation. This translates into not only sports performance gains, but also an increased rate of recovery from training and reduced injury risk.  The majority of studies done on muscular strength show that WBV training is at least as effective as traditional strength training, and perhaps even more so if the goal is an increase in power.

Treatment Goals

  • Improve Circulation to Tight Muscles
  • Flush out Metabolic Waste
  • Improve Flexibility and Joint Mobility
  • Improved Muscle Strength and Tone
  • Prevent Joint Stiffness
  • Reduce Pain
  • Enhance Post-Training Recovery time

The Scientific Basis of Training

The use of vibrations in an athletic setting offers new possibilities to coaching science. Resistance training effectiveness has been demonstrated due to the possibility of enhancing neuromuscular performance, power output, strength and hormonal profile. However, the time needed for these adaptations to occur is relatively long as compared to the possibilities offered by vibration treatments. It should be recognized however, that vibrations need to be viewed not as a substitute tool of resistance exercise but as a valid additional means to be implemented in a training routine in association with all the other traditional methodologies nowadays utilized.

WBV exercise training appears to be a viable alternative or, supplement to conventional resistance training for enhancing muscular fitness, bone density, and balance.  Also, it is used for a variety of things from both a static and dynamic movement perspective: muscle recovery and regeneration, strength, power and flexibility enhancement, and metabolic training.

Study Summaries:

  • Six weeks of WBV training produced significant changes in spring running kinematics and explosive strength performance. (Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2007)
  • WBV training may increase vertical jump height. (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2006)
  • WBV training was as effective in increasing strength in untrained females’ knee extensors as moderate resistance training. (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2003)
  • Acute Changes in Neuromuscular Excitability After Exhaustive Whole Body Vibration Exercise as Compared to Exhaustion by Squatting Exercise. The observed total exercise time, the changes in blood lactate and the RPE values suggest that a comparable degree of exhaustion and muscular fatigue was reached more rapidly with vibration than without. This becomes plausible when considering that whole-body vibration increases the oxygen consumption when applied in addition to the squatting exercise (Rittweger et al., 2001). A substantial correlation was observed between the individual exercise times with or without vibration, indicating a contribution of the individual resistance to fatigue for both types of exercise. (J. Rittweger, et. al.; Clinical Physiology & Functional Imaging, 2003).
  • In a few words, vibrations can stimulate the biological system of athletes in the same way as strength training or explosive training and this stimulation can be applied in a much shorter period of time as compared to the time needed to perform traditional training sessions. This opens a new window in sports science and gives coaches and scientists new possibilities for studying and enhancing human performance.The regular use of centrifugal force (2 g) for 3 months has initiated conversion of muscle fibre type (Martin and Romond, 1975). In the experiments conducted, the total length of the WBV application period was not very long (from 7 minutes to 100 minutes), but the disturbance to the gravitational field was quite consistent (5.4 g). An equivalent length and intensity of training stimulus (100 minutes) can only be reached by performing 200 drop jumps from 60 cm, twice a week for 12 months. In fact, the time spent for each drop jump is less than 200 ms, and the acceleration developed can barely reach 3.0 g (Bosco. 1992). This means stimulating the muscles for 2 min per week for a total amount in one year of 108 minutes.
  • The improvement of the muscle performance after a short period of vibration training has been quoted (Bosco et al. 1998) to be similar to what occurs after several weeks of heavy resistance training (e.g. Coyle et al. 1981, Hakkinen and Komi 1985). In fact the improvement of the muscle functions after resistance training has been attributed to the enhancement of the neuromuscular behaviour caused by the increasing activity of the higher motor centre (Milner -Brownet al., 1975). The improvement of muscle performances induced by VT suggests that a neural adaptation has occurred in response to the vibration treatments. In this context, the duration of the stimulus seems to be both relevant and important. The adaptive response of human skeletal muscle to simulated hyper-gravity conditions applied for only three weeks, caused a considerable improvement in the leg extensor muscle behavior (Bosco. 1985). Thus it is likely that both neural adaptation and the length of the stimulus seem to play an important role in the improvement of muscle performances (e.g. Bosco, 1985, 1988).
  • Adaptive Responses of Human Skeletal Muscle to Vibration Exposure. In the present experiment, even if the total length of the vibration training application period was only 10 minutes, the perturbation of the gravitation field was rather consistent (2.7g). An equivalent length and intensity of training stimulus can be reached only by performing 150 leg presses or half squats with extra loads of 3 times body weight, twice a week for 5 weeks. (C. Bosco, et. al., Clin. Physiol. 1999)
  • The facilitation of the excitability of the spinal reflex has been elicited through vibration of the quadriceps muscle (Burke et al., 1996). Lebedev and Peliakov (1991) have aIso suggested the possibility that vibrations may elicit excitatory inflow through muscle spindle-motoneurons connections in the overall motoneuron inflow.
  • It has been shown that the vibration-induced activation of muscle spindle receptors not only affects the muscle to which vibration is applied, but also affects the neighboring muscles (Kasai et. al., 1992). A mechanical vibration (10-200 Hz), applied to the muscle belly or tendon can elicit a reflex contraction (Hagbarth and Eklund, 1965). This response has been named “tonic vibration reflex” (1VR).
  • Vertical jumping ability has been shown to increase following vibration treatment (Bosco et al. 1998; Bosco et al. In-press). These improvements have been attributed to an enhancement of neural activity in the leg extensor muscles, together with an enhancement of the proprioceptors’ feedback. During vibrations, the length of skeletal muscles changes slightly. The facilitation of the excitability of spinal reflexes has been shown to be elicited by vibrations applied to the quadriceps muscle (Burke et. al., 1996).

Vibration, Resistance & Vascular Occlusion

Int J Sports Med. 2011 Oct;32(10):781-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1277215. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Combined effects of whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and vascular occlusion on skeletal muscle and performance.

Item F, Denkinger J, Fontana P, Weber M, Boutellier U, Toigo M.

Source: Exercise Physiology, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new high-intensity training modality comprised of vibration exercise with superimposed resistance exercise and vascular occlusion (vibroX) on skeletal muscle and performance.

Method: Young untrained women were randomized to either train in a progressive mode on 3 days per week for 5 weeks ( N=12) or to maintain a sedentary lifestyle ( N=9). VibroX increased peak cycling power (+9%, P=0.001), endurance capacity (+57%, P=0.002), ventilatory threshold (+12%, P<0.001), and end-test torque (+15%, P=0.002) relative to the sedentary group.

Results:

  • Training load increased by 84.5% ( P<0.001) after vibroX.
  • The increases were paralleled by increases in myosin heavy chain type 1 vastus lateralis muscle fiber cross-sectional area (+14%, P=0.031) and proportion (+17%, P=0.015), thigh lean mass (+4%, P=0.001), capillary-to-fiber ratio (+14%, P=0.003), and cytochrome c oxidase activity.
  • Conversely, maximal values for oxygen consumption, cardiac output, isokinetic leg extension power and jumping power remained unaffected.
  • Notably, vastus lateralis muscle adaptations were achieved with a very low weekly training volume.

Conclusion:  We conclude that vibroX quickly increases muscle (fiber) size, capillarization, and oxidative potential, and markedly augments endurance capacity in young women.

PMID: 21870317 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Video of training – 2:15 into the video Galileo starts the rest period

Stretch Reflexes

Eur J Appl Physiol (2010) 110:143–151 DOI 10.1007/s00421-010-1483-x  Accepted: 9 April 2010 / Published online: 24 April 2010 _ Springer-Verlag 2010

EMG activity during whole body vibration: motion artifacts or stretch reflexes?

Ramona Ritzmann • Andreas Kramer • Markus Gruber • Albert Gollhofer • Wolfgang Taube

Abstract

Purpose: The validity of electromyographic (EMG) data recorded during whole body vibration (WBV) is controversial. Some authors ascribed a major part of the EMG signal to vibration-induced motion artifacts while others have interpreted the EMG signals as muscular activity caused at least partly by stretch reflexes. The aim of this study was to explore the origin of the EMG signal during WBV using several independent approaches.

Method: In ten participants, the latencies and spectrograms of stretch reflex responses evoked by passive dorsiflexions in an ankle ergometer were compared to those of the EMG activity of four leg muscles during WBV. Pressure application to the muscles was used to selectively reduce the stretch reflex, thus permitting to distinguish stretch reflexes from other signals. To monitor motion artifacts, dummy electrodes were placed close to the normal electrodes.

Results: Strong evidence for stretch reflexes was found: the latencies of the stretch reflex responses evoked by dorsiflexions were almost identical to the supposed stretch reflex responses during vibration (differences of less than 1 ms). Pressure application significantly reduced the amplitude of both the supposed stretch reflexes during vibration (by 61 ± 17%, p\0.001) and the stretch reflexes in the ankle ergometer (by 56 ± 13%, p\0.01). The dummy electrodes showed almost no activity during WBV (7 ± 4% of the corresponding muscle’s iEMG signal). The frequency analyses revealed no evidence of motion artifacts.

Conclusion: The present results support the hypothesis of WBV-induced stretch reflexes. Contribution of motion artifacts to the overall EMG activity seems to be insignificant.

Keywords: Electromyography _ Afferent _Pressure application _ Frequency analysis _ Spectrogram _Latency

H-Reflex, Stretch Reflex & Short-Latency

Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2011

The effect of whole body vibration on the H-reflex, the stretch reflex, and the short-latency response during hopping.

Ritzmann R, Kramer A, Gollhofer A, Taube W
Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Abstract

The effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on reflex responses is controversially discussed in the literature.

PURPOSE:  In this study, three different modalities of reflex activation with increased motor complexity have been selected to clarify the effects of acute WBV on reflex activation: 1) the electrically evoked H-reflex, 2) the mechanically elicited stretch reflex, and 3) the short-latency response (SLR) during hopping.

METHOD:  WBV-induced changes of the H-reflex, the stretch reflex, and the SLR during hopping were recorded in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles and were analyzed before, during (only the H-reflex), immediately after, 5 min and 10 min after WBV.

RESULTS:  The main findings were that: 1)  the H-reflexes were significantly reduced during and at least up to 5 min after WBV, 2) the stretch reflex amplitudes were also significantly reduced immediately after WBV but recovered to their initial amplitudes within 5 min, and 3) the SLR during hopping showed no vibration-induced modulation.  With regard to the modalities with low motor complexities, the decreased H- and stretch reflex responses are assumed to point toward a reduced Ia afferent transmission during and after WBV. However, it is assumed that during hopping, the suppression of reflex sensitivity is compensated by facilitatory mechanisms in this complex motor task.

PMID: 22011018

Acute Effects of WBV on Soleus H-Reflex

International Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, October 2010, Vol. 1, Issue 1, 30-40

Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Rate of Force Development and Electromechanical Delay.

Junggi Hong Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Science, Willamette University.  K. Kipp, Dept of PM&R University of Michigan. S.T. Johnson & M.A. Hoffman University of Oregon State

ABSTRACT

Background: The ability to generate rapid and powerful muscle contractions within a short period of time is an important factor for both enhancing sports performance and preventing injuries. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV) has been introduced as a novel training method designed to produce neuromuscular improvement similar to that of power and strength training. However, to date there are only limited data on the acute effects of WBV on the neuromuscular system. Furthermore, there is little understanding about the responsiveness of the neuromuscular system to acute exposure WBV.

Research question: The present study examined the effect of acute WBV training on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromechanical delay (EMD) in the soleus muscle.

Type of study: Randomized controlled study.

Methods: Forty young individuals with no leg injuries were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group received acute WBV (3 bouts of 2 minutes). The control group adopted the same position (squat position) on the vibration platform for an equal time but received no vibration.

Results: The experimental (WBV) group demonstrated a significant group °— time interaction for the rate of force development (RFD) and electromechanical delay (EMD) representing 15.6% (from 274Nm/sec to 323 Nm/sec) and 16% (from 23.42 ms to 19.3 ms) improvement.

Conclusions: It appears that acute WBV enhances RFD and EMD of the soleus musclin young healthy subjects.

KEY WORDS: Whole body vibration, Neurological adaptation, Rate of force development, Electromechanical delay, EMG

Improve Balance Control & Muscle Endurance

PLoS One, 2014; 9 (2): e89905

Whole body vibration training – improving balance control and muscle endurance

Ritzmann R, Kramer A, Bernhardt S, Golhofer A

Source: Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Abstract

Objective: Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and “control” groups in regard to training volume, load and type.

Study overview: In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB) or the equivalent training group (CON). Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups.

Main outcome measure: Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period.

Results:  The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group x time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05). Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p = 0.33) and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p = 0.49). The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p = 0.25 and CON +/-0%, p = 0.82).

Summary: This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV.

PMID: 24587114

Skeletal Muscle and Performance

Int J Sports Med. 2011 Oct;32(10):781-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1277215. Epub 2011 Aug 25

Combined Effects of Whole-Body Vibration, Resistance Exercise, and Vascular Occlusion on Skeletal Muscle and Performance

Item 1 , 2 , J. Denkinger 1 , P. Fontana 1 , 3 , M. Weber 4 , U. Boutellier 1 , 2 , M. Toigo 1 , 2 , 3

Affiliations

  1. Exercise Physiology, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  2. Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
  3. Exersciences gmbh, Zurich, Switzerland
  4. Department of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new high-intensity training modality comprised of vibration exercise with superimposed resistance exercise and vascular occlusion (vibroX) on skeletal muscle and performance.

Method: Young untrained women were randomized to either train in a progressive mode on 3 days per week for 5 weeks ( n = 12) or to maintain a sedentary lifestyle ( n = 9).

Results: VibroX increased peak cycling power ( + 9 % , P = 0.001), endurance capacity ( + 57 %, P = 0.002), ventilatory threshold ( + 12 % , P < 0.001), and end-test torque( + 15 % , P = 0.002) relative to the sedentary group. Training load increased by 84.5 % ( P < 0.001) after vibroX. The increases were paralleled by increases in myosin heavy chain type 1 vastus lateralis muscle fiber cross-sectional area ( + 14 %, P = 0.031) and proportion ( + 17 % , P = 0.015), thigh lean mass    ( + 4 % , P = 0.001), capillary-to fiber ratio ( + 14 % , P = 0.003), and cytochrome c oxidase activity. Conversely, maximal values for oxygen consumption, cardiac output, isokinetic leg extension power and jumping power remained unaffected. Notably, vastus lateralis muscle adaptations were achieved with a very low weekly training volume.

Conclusion: We conclude that vibroX quickly increases muscle (fi ber) size, capillarization, and oxidative potential, and markedly augments endurance capacity in young women.